Once appraisals of triggers have been identified, it can be beneficial for both counsellor and client to consider the appraisal and evaluate its validity. This can be achieved through a number of questioning techniques (as outlined below). Examining the evidence What is the evidence to suggest that the appraisal is accurate? What is the evidence […]
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To begin the management of anger, both counsellor and client require an understanding of the client’s expressive patterns. This can be achieved by encouraging clients to complete an Anger Episode Record. This is a record of each trigger, appraisal, experience, expressive pattern and outcome the client encounters during an established time period. Trigger The target […]
Kassinove & Tafrate (2002) developed the anger episode model after conducting research that observed individuals responding to anger in real-life situations. The model has five main components, each interlinked with the next (click on the image below). Defining the Components of the Anger Episode Model Triggers are external or internal events, words, thoughts or experiences […]
The anger thermometer can be used in counselling as a mechanism for discussing various anger-provoking scenarios and establishing the label befitting the feeling evoked. Scenarios can range from yielding reactions that are mild to reactions that are intense. Examples include, the feeling evoked when: you are woken up 10 minutes early (mild) you know someone […]
“Anger: Kassinove and Sukhodolsky (1995) defined anger as a felt emotional state. This private state varies in intensity and duration, as well as frequency, and is associated with cognitive distortions, verbal and motor behaviours, and patterns of physical arousal. Although anger may emerge spontaneously, another person is typically seen as the cause of anger. And […]
A client comes to you having had to quit work due to a degenerative visual impairment. He has a 3 year-old child and his wife is expecting another baby. His sight may continue to deteriorate or it may remain at the current level. He is suffering stress, feelings of grief and loss and anxiety about […]
“Bullying is a compulsive need to displace aggression and is achieved by the expression of inadequacy (social, personal, interpersonal, behavioural, professional) by projection of that inadequacy onto others through control and subjugation (criticism, exclusion, isolation etc). Bullying is sustained by abdication of responsibility (denial, counter-accusation, pretence of victimhood) and perpetuated by a climate of fear, […]
Chris came to counselling because he was experiencing increasing feelings of being stressed, overwhelmed and weighed down by his commitments in life. He has been particularly concerned about his negative thoughts and attitude at work and at home and would like to change this. Chris has been seeing a Professional Counsellor for three sessions and […]
“Stress is an ignorant state. It believes that everything is an emergency.” (Natalie Goldberg) Stress in the workplace is common and caused by many different factors and issues. Many problems may never be fully resolved and the amount of stress a person experiences is often determined by whether or not they can accept that some […]
“When Mozart was composing at the end of the eighteenth century, the city of Vienna was so quiet that fire alarms could be given verbally, by a shouting watchman mounted on top of St. Stefan’s Cathedral. In twentieth-century society, the noise level is such that it keeps knocking our bodies out of tune and out […]
“It is better to intervene than remediate” Preventing stress is the best remedy to reduce the effects of stress in daily life, and its potential (and negative) consequences. There are three broad areas which comprise many strategies of stress prevention, particularly in the workplace. Such areas involve making decisions, avoiding procrastination and delegation. Make Decisions […]
How do we cope with stress? There are literally thousands of books, articles and websites that cover stress and stress management. However, the ancient and natural ways are probably still the best ways towards peace and serenity. The old adage, ‘prevention is better than cure’ is certainly true for stress management. Here are some tips […]
Earlier in this series we’ve defined several types of stress which originate from similarly related events or stressors. Likewise, there are varied overlapping stages which constitute what we call stress. In a nutshell, the stages of stress denote the responses to the various stressful events an individual may undergo, and the accumulative effect of such […]
One of the reasons why people have a hard time ending stress is that they are not addressing the core issues within their lives. Following are six categories of stress. They are categorised so that you may first know the issue and the cause of the problem to find the solution. Work/Study Related Stress The […]
Do you know what happens to your body in a stressful situation? Although the incidence of stress in people’s lives is vastly dictated by automated body responses, there is no doubt that part of it is a result of our interpretation and other ‘conscious’ mechanisms. Thus, there is a factor of decision-making and learning involved. […]