Personality disorders are thought to result from a difficult temperament (as well as biological and social factors). Personality traits and temperaments are dimensional characteristics that are heritable and manifest early in life. These characteristics underlie or influence cognitive processes, interpersonal and social functions, emotional and affective states and biological stress systems (Howland, 2007; Shiner, 2005). […]
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Everyone has personality traits that characterise them as unique individuals. Such traits refer to the usual way in which a person thinks, feels and behaves. Specifically, personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviours, consistently exhibited by an individual over a long period of time. Personality is a complex combination of traits and […]
Cognitive restructuring, straight thinking or logical reanalysis is based on the belief that the way we feel, behave and respond to situations is based on the way we think. This approach attempts to modify unhelpful thought patterns and beliefs. Cognitive restructuring, also known as cognitive reframing, is a technique drawn from cognitive therapy that can […]
The Beck Depression Inventory is copyrighted by the Psychological Corporation. Material here presented is only for educational purpose because the BDI should be used only by registered professionals. The original version of the BDI was introduced by Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock and Erbaugh in 1961 (cited in Victims’ Web, 2007). The BDI was revised in […]
Generalised anxiety disorder is a common chronic anxiety disorder that affects twice as many women as men (Brawman-Mintzer, & Lydiard, 1997). As the name implies, it is characterised by worry that is excessive and unrealistic and lasts more than six months. Long-lasting anxiety is not focused solely on one specific object or situation, however in […]
People with panic disorder suffer severe attacks of anxiety which can make them feel as though they are having a heart attack or are going crazy. Symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, sweating, trembling, dizziness, difficulty breathing and feelings of losing control. Panic disorder involves at least one of these attacks followed by […]
Motivational enhancement is a style of person-centred counselling developed to facilitate change in health-related behaviours. The core principle of the approach is negotiation rather than conflict. It aims to help people explore and resolve their ambivalence about behaviour change. It combines warmth and empathy with focused reflective listening and the development of discrepancy between where […]
Obsessive compulsive disorder is a type of anxiety disorder primarily characterised by obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are distressing, repetitive, intrusive thoughts or images that the person realises are irrational. Compulsions are repetitive behaviours that the person feels forced or compelled into doing in order to relieve the anxiety brought about by obsessions. In other words, […]
Prevention is defined as “interventions that occur before the initial onset of a disorder to prevent the development of disorder” (Mrazek & Haggerty, 1994, p. 23). The prevention of depression relies on reducing the risk factors for mental disorder, as well as enhancing the protective factors that promote mental health. The level of risk of […]
Many of us already know that stress is a double edge sword. Stress can be good for us when preparing us for a special or threatening event. Many will be familiar with the concept of the Fight and Flight Syndrome. When a threat is perceived, our brain and body prepares to do battle or to […]
There are many forms of disabilities that can affect the child’s normal developmental process. Some disabilities can be more severe than others. A common type of disability hindering a child’s development is a learning disorder. Having such a disorder can be painful for children as they have to deal the disconnections they may be experiencing […]
Assessment is the core function for counsellors in child and family services. It begins with efforts to engage a child and family in order to build a working relationship where you as the counsellor can encourage participation rather than resistance. The assessment requires the counsellor to make sense of all the information sh/e is given […]
Rotgers, F., Morganstern, J., & Walters, S. T. (Eds.). (2003). Treating substance abuse: Theory and technique (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 374 pages. ISBN: 13 978-1-59385-374-7 Treating Substance Abuse: Theory and Technique provides comprehensive and theoretically diverse perspectives on working with clients seeking recovery from substance abuse. Skilled and experienced clinicians were enlisted […]
The essential features of Bulimia Nervosa are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain at least twice a week for at least three months. The self-evaluation of people with Bulimia Nervosa is excessively influenced by body shape and weight. A binge is defined as eating in a discrete period of time (usually […]
MacLeod (1981) states people with anorexia are notoriously difficult persons who are determined to hang on to their symptoms at all costs. This is a common view throughout the medical profession and related fields, possibly due to the ego-syntonic nature of eating disorders – the person is comfortable with the disorder and views it as […]