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There is a difference between substance use, abuse and dependence. Substance use, as the name implies, refers to the use of substances in low to moderate amounts and does not interfere with social, occupational or educational functioning. Substance abuse on the other hand refers to regular use and it is defined ... Read More

The fundamental approach to interactions contains the following four elements: Open-ended questions Affirmations Reflective listening Summaries Motivational interviewing creates an acronym OARS from this and the goal in using OARS is to assist the person to move forward, creating change talk and motivation from within. This change talk contains statements that the client may be ... Read More

The Value of Empathy

A requirement for being an effective counsellor is being able to practice and impart the skill of empathy in the client-counsellor interaction. Being empathetic ensures you are listening and dealing with the clients concerns as they present them. You are not judging them.  In this post we'll look at how empathy can assist ... Read More

The Psychology of Addiction

Almost all substance use affects the "reward mechanism" in the brain. The main chemical messenger involved in the brain's reward mechanism is dopamine. Each time the person uses a substance they will tend to feel ‘good’, which makes them want to use the substance again. Over time, changes in the

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According to Wikipedia, "Learning is a change in behavior based on previous experience. It may involve processing different types of information.

Learning functions can be performed by different brain learning processes, which depend on the mental capacities (of which are dynamic) of learning subject/agent, the type of knowledge which has to

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